A literary type is a group of typologies (not to be confused with “typification”) in literary studies that is performed within the category of the literary genus (see the article). Some researchers confuse the type and literary genre (see the article) due to the complexity of their theoretical distinction, but it is possible, and therefore the literary type must be sought when searching for a particular work. Since the species is typologized within the genus, it is necessary to list them in groups according to the genera. Just want to note that not all works lend themselves to precise typology or defy her why so I wrote in the article “Story – what it is”; and I’m not going to list all the known literature only a few with an explanation of their essence to understand the typology of literary types.
Epic types of literature:
The poem is an original type of literature, from which the entire epic genus is derived; it is clear that these are narrative works, lyrical songs, set out in this way. Tells about specific events in their objectivity, as befits an epic, for example, about the life of the people or social processes;
An epic is a major poem that tells the story of grandiose events that affect a large social group, such as a nation, or even several peoples;
A short story / Novella is a small prose work that describes a specific event or situation that is fully or closely related to it;
The story is still a small work in terms of volume, but it is more complex than the story in that it describes large events and situations that it Chronicles in the narrative;
A novel is a large work in form and volume, as complex in plot and narrative; because of all this, novels are different and are rightfully the freest kind of literature. When typologizing, they are combined on the basis of (in addition to the volume and kind) a plot that is complex in its structure, revealing even if not always directly related events that are significantly extended in time;
Myth – early works about fantastic characters, such as gods and events, such as heroic deeds. Since myth-making was not previously perceived as a completely fictional narrative, the myth is therefore separated from the fairy tale into an independent type of literature;
Fable / Parable – a moralizing (didactic) work that depicts the main thoughts allegorically (Aesop’s language, Aesop’s language), and at the end brings the conclusion to what happened;
A proverb is a poetic, almost always folk, work (although in fact the real author is simply unknown), it is a rhythmic didactic utterance, sometimes allegorical;
Legend / Legend – a prose work that is a statement of the facts of the past, which is why it is largely distorted, since this type of literature appeared and was actively used before highly effective documentation. For example, the legend or “legend of Gilgamesh” is a work about the hero Gilgamesh, to whom, among other things, the character Ut-Napishtim tells about a significant flooding, a reflection of the fact that the authors lived in the area (Mesopotamia or “two rivers”, ~50 centuries ago). Later this work became the object of plagiarism more than once, including in Judaism and Christianity;
A fairy tale is a work that tells about completely fictional events, which is now often replaced by the anglicism “fantasy”among ordinary people.
Lyrical types of literature:
The song is one of the first known types of literature that lyrically describes historical or particularly important events, such as “the Song (Word) of Igor’s Regiment” or ” the Song of the Nibelungs”;
Hymn – in the original literary type of religious work, praising God, the deity (this is different), and their like. Currently, a hymn is a lyrical Eulogy, praising something; the most famous example is the national anthem;
A ballad is a special kind, since it is in an inter-generational state, because a ballad is a lyric-epic work that tells about fairy-tale or legendary events in song form. In the original comes from the Latin Argo ballare-dance, which explains a lot. In world literature this type of work is rare and represented by a small number;
An ode is a work that solemnly depicts major historical events or a person(s). Currently almost no production is made;
A romance is a work typologized on the basis of its rhythmic form and musical accompaniment. to put it simply, it is a poem for singing, which an ordinary person would most likely call a “bard’s song” and would not be particularly mistaken;
An Elegy is a rhythmic work (a poetic form), characterized by an emphasis on sadness, longing, and pensive sadness;
An epigram is also a verse, but it has a mocking, satirical content.
Dramatic types of literature:
Tragedy-a work in which a specific conflict develops by aggravating the consequences of the original situation or event in which it occurred, and is resolved by the death of the hero(s) or something else, but disastrous. We must remember that every tragedy is a drama, but not every drama is a tragedy;
Comedy – in this dramatic work, in contrast to tragedy, the conflict develops in the direction of weakening influence, and never has critical, fateful consequences. In the same way, Comedy as a type of drama touches on the problems of human existence, but also in other approaches: ridiculing, exposing and bringing to the absurd. The latter, when properly handled, makes Comedy no less complex and imposing a type of literature than tragedy;
Vaudeville (as a species) – a Comedy work, usually for a theatrical production, based on intrigue; would be a genre if it did not combine sitcom, romance and dance numbers (in the case of a theatrical production);
Farce (as a species) – a Comedy work, usually of domestic content, combining romance and satire;
Drama (as a species) – works that reflect everything that relates to drama as a kind: the image of events and characters in their connection in the course of action; if simply, the drama is a combination of objectively occurring events and their perception by subjects, that is, we can say “epic lyrics”. The depicted events of drama as a type of literature are called dramatic.
As I said earlier, these are not all literary types, but the listed and disclosed ones are more than enough to understand the content and essence of such typology. And the fact that one type is presented more widely, another rather does not exist now, and the third has a completely different original content-details, because literary studies is the study of a mobile culture, where change is the norm.